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Citing on the blog

Here's a link to the plagiarism quiz mentioned during the first class:

Even if you're confident in your paraphrasing and citing abilities, it's well worth taking a few minutes to complete the quiz. (I, your prof, actually got a couple of the the questions wrong and learned something new!)

On this page

 Don McCrady,  At the Temple of Hatshepsut  (10 Feb 2012). CC BY-NC-ND 2.0.

Don McCrady, At the Temple of Hatshepsut (10 Feb 2012). CC BY-NC-ND 2.0.

Citing Images

All images on the blog must have a Creative Commons license, a Public Domain designation, or be useable under the laws of fair use. If you aren't sure whether or not an image meets these criteria - do ask.

The citation for your image should appear in the image caption.
  • Format: Creator/Photographer, Hyperlinked Title, Date, Licensing Info
    • Licensing Info = “Public Domain” or a Creative Commons License (e.g., the license for Hello World Civ in the footer or anything that starts with a "CC")
    • If you’re unsure what the license is or how to locate that information, come chat with me (Prof. Bennett)

The example provided here includes a properly formatted image citation for an image located on Wikimedia Commons.

Related Link:  Finding Images for Blog Posts


In-Text Citations

Think about citations as a way to connect readers with more information.

  • Highlight a relevant word/phrase, such as a key idea, part of a direct quote, or an author's name.
  • Add your hyperlink to that word or phrase.
  • At the end of the sentence, add any additional information - page number, chapter title, etc. - that will help readers locate the information on the webpage. [See various formats below]
  • Each paragraph should include at least one hyperlinked citation.

[Want to do the yellow bubble things like the primary sources instead? See “How to make the yellow bubble things” in Blogging Project Resources]


Reference List

  • Should be located at the bottom of the post
  • References should be in alphabetical order
  • Use permalinks or stable URLs when possible for e-books and articles.
  • Use the formats modeled below for various types of sources.
The basic information included in all citations, regardless of media form, will be:

Author/Creator. Hyperlinked Title. (Date of Publication or Release) Licensing or Publication Info.



In-Text Citation: Hyperlinked words/phrase + Chapter or section title + page or location #
  • Example: In Smarter Than You Think, Clive Thompson tackles the question of how best to define the genre of YouTube videos. He points to the example of MadV's "The Message," a compilation of videos showing people with short messages written on their hands. Thompson reflects on how this form might be classified: "A conversation? A documentary? Some new type of poetry?" ("The New Literacies," loc. 1476-1477)

Reference List: Author Name (Last, First). Hyperlinked Book Title. (Date of Publication) Name of Electronic Database or Service.

Electronic Articles

In-text Citation: Hyperlinked words/phrase + page #'s
  • Example: Christian Lae's compilation of Greek inscriptions mentioning midwives in the Roman Empire’s eastern territories undoubtedly shed light on the the practices and potions associated with midwifery as well as the respect accorded to midwives in Roman society (p 154). The inscriptions are, however, only just so useful to a lay reader; Laes does not offer translations of any of the inscriptions (pp 158-162).

Reference List: Author Name (Last, First). "Hyperlinked Article Title" (use stable URL or permalink) (Date of Publication) Publication Title, Volume/Issue: Page Numbers.


In-Text Citation: Hyperlinked word or phrase

  • Example: Many elite women (the wives of priests, political leaders, scribes, and military officials) served as singers, dancers, and musicians in Egyptian temples during the New Kingdom period of ancient Egypt.

Reference List:

  1. Check first to see if the website includes a request to use a particular format when citing. If the website lists a preferred reference format, please include that format in your references list.
  2. Otherwise provide as much information as possible: Webpage Author. Hyperlinked Webpage Title. (Publication Date) From Website Title. Website Author/Creator/Institution. (Creation Date of Website) Date of Access.

Online Videos

If embedded in the blog post, the video should be Fair Use, Public Domain, or Creative Commons.

In-Text Citation: Hyperlinked word or phrase

  • Example: Michael Wesch is a Digital Anthropologist who studies the way the web revolutionizes the flow of media and knowledge from creators to users. His video The Machine is Us/ing Us (Final Version) is an insightful, creative breakdown of how hyperlinks have changed the way we connect information.

Reference List: Creator Username. Hyperlinked Video Title. Series or Full Video Title. (Date of Upload) Database/Source. Licensing Info.

Audio Files (Songs, Podcasts, etc.)

If embedded in the blog post, the audio file should be Fair Use, Public Domain, or Creative Commons.

In-Text Citation: Hyperlinked word or phrase.

  • Example: The Women’s March on Washington, scheduled for 21 January 2017, is intended to make a strong statement about the necessity of continued progress in women’s rights to the incoming government. Cristen Conger and Caroline Ervin’s recent podcast, Do Women’s Marches Matter?, takes a closer look at the complicated history and impact of women’s marches.

Reference List: Creator User/name. Hyperlinked title of audio. (Release Date) Overarching organization(s) (if applicable). Licensing Info (if applicable).

  • Example 1: Conger, Cristen and Caroline Ervin. Do Women’s Marches Matter? (26 Dec 2016) Stuff Mom Never Told You and How Stuff Works.
  • Example 2: Thompost. “Good Morning” from Garden. (29 Apr 2012) Internet Archive. CC BY-NC-ND 3.0.

Print Books and Articles

If you physically have the book/article in your hand and have not used an electronic copy at all, this is for you. If you used an electronic copy of the source, head back up to e-books and electronic articles.

In-Text Citation: Parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence (but before the period). Include author last name and page number(s).

  • Example: Joyce Tyldesley notes that female priestesses were far more common in the Old Kingdom, when administrative jobs were cyclical and part-time, than in the New Kingdom, when the bureaucracy was more established and administrative positions required full-time commitments (Tyldesley, 125).

Reference List: Author Name(s). Title of Work. (Date of Publication) Publisher/Publication. Volume/Issue (if article): Page Numbers (if article).

  • Example (Book): Tyldesley, Joyce. Daughters of Isis: Women of Ancient Egypt. (1995) Penguin Books.
  • Example (Book Chapter): Teeter, Emily. “Inside the Temple: The Role and Function of Temple Singers,” from The Life of Meresamun: A Temple Singer in Ancient Egypt. (2009) Edited by Emily Teeter and Janet H. Johnson. Oriental Institute Museum Publications.
  • Example (Article): Same as electronic article, minus the hyperlinked title.