page contents

The Indus Valley Civilisation

Indus Valley Civilisation

The Indus Valley Civilisation was located along the Indus River, Northwest of India in which it is located Northeast of Afghanistan to Pakistan today with an estimated population of 35,000 where citizens mainly worked in farming and irrigation sectors. The Indus Valley Civilisation was well known for having proper sanitation and water management practices despite it being a huge city. More information about their drainage systems can be found here. Alongside, it was also notable for having a standardized measurement system, specialisation of handiwork and well-built architecture. However, the Indus Valley Civilisation experienced a decline during 1800 BCE. Interested to know about the decline of the Indus Valley Civilisation and what it was well known for? Click on our Instagram page to find out!


Bhutta, M, N., & Smedema, L, K. (2007, December 5) One hundred years of waterlogging and salinity control in the Indus valley, Pakistan: a historical review. doi: 10.1002/ird.333

Dales, George F & Alcock, Leslie & Kenoyer, Jonathan M (1986). Excavations at Mohenjo Daro, Pakistan : the pottery. University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

Feurstein, George, Kak, Subash, Frawley, David. (2001) In Search of the Cradle of Civilization. Wheaton, Illinois. Quest Books. 83

Gardner, H., & Kleiner, F. S. (2011). Gardner's Art Through The Ages: A Global History. Australia: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Kenoyer, J. M. (1991). The Indus Valley Tradition of Pakistan and Western India. Journal of World Prehistory, 5(4), 331-385. doi:10.1007/bf00978474

Neiburger, E, J. (2013, January) A comparison of the American Old Copper Culture with the Indus Valley Civilisation. Central States Archaeological Journal, 60(1), 18-21. 

Possehl, G. L. (2003). The indus civilization: A contemporary perspective. Walnut Creek: Altamira press, Rowman & Littlefield publishers, inc.

Saikia, A. (2016, September 20). 48 Lesser-Known Facts about Indus Valley Civilization. 

Schug, G, R., Blevins, K, E., Cox, B., Gray, K., & Mushrif-Tripathy, V. (2013, December 17) Infection, Disease, and Biosocial Processes at the End of the Indus Civilization. Retrieved from

Shinde, V., Deshpande, S., Osada, T., & Uno, T. (2006, December 01). Ancient Asia. 

Shinde, V, & Willis, R, J. (2014). A New Type of Inscribed Copper Plate from Indus Valley (Harappan) Civilisation. 

Image Citations: 

Indus Valley Civilization, Late Phase (1900-1300 BCE), 4 June 2014, CC BY-SA 3.0

Pakistan-CIA WFB Map, 26 July 2008, Public Domain

Diorama of the Indus Valley Civilization, 23 February 2016, CC BY 3.0

Diorama of the Indus Valley Civilization, 22 February 2016, CC BY 3.0

Diorama of the Indus Valley Civilization, 6 May 2014, CC BY 3.0

Earrings, 6 November 2007, CC BY-SA 3.0

Dancing Girl of Mohenjo-daro, 7 January 2011, CC-BY-SA 3.0

Female Figure from the Harappan Phase, 28 January 2011, CC0 1.0

Female Figurine from the Mature Harappan Period, 18 January 2012, CC0 1.0

Mohenjo-daro Priesterkönig, 8 October 2006, CC BY-SA 1.0

Children’s Toy from Mohenjo-daro, 24 June 2007, Public Domain

Harappan Toy Models, 14 December 2009, CC BY 2.5

Ceremonial Vessel, 9 July 2013, Public Domain

Harappan Pottery, 24 February 2013, CC BY 3.0

Storage Jar from the Mature Harappan Period, 18 January 2012, CC0 1.0

3 Different Seals, 31 July 2010, Public Domain

Unicorn Mold of Seal, 21 February 2012, CC0 1.0

Shiva Pashupati, 11 November 2010, Public Domain

Mold of Seal, 27 September 2015, CC0 1.0

Brick from the Harappan Phase, 20 November 2011, CC0 1.0

Mohenjo-daro, 2 July 2011, CC BY-SA 3.0

Dholavira Sophisticated Water Reservoir, 19 April 2006, CC BY-SA 3.0

Mohenjo-daro Remains, 11 September 2016, CC BY-SA 4.0

Ancient Well in Lothal, 5 February 2014, CC BY-SA 3.0

The Hindu Gods Vishnu, Shiva, and Brahma, 1 May 2004, Public Domain

Indus Valley Civilization, 14 March 2013, CC BY-SA 3.0