Our Origins

Welcome welcome!

Before you explore further, let us refresh your memory. In post 1, our main thesis argued against the common belief that Africa is isolated from the world. We addressed how Africa has historical connections with the world, by discussing the ancient roots of mermaid-worship in Western Africa.

In this post, we will again bring our main thesis to light! That is, Africa has historical connections with the world. But this time, we’ll be exploring why that is the case, by addressing the beginning of the human evolution in Africa.

What makes this post cooler is this scrapbook gallery we’ve prepared for you! Now let our scrapbook take you millions of years back in time...

[Note: Hover over the scanned pages for in-text citations. Images used are numbered within the pages and are cited accordingly in a form of a list below]

Reference List:

Text:

Archaic humans. (2017, March 12). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 16:22, April 3, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Archaic_humans&oldid=769882210

African World Heritage Sites. (N.D.). The fossil record of human origins and evolution. Retrieved from http://www.africanworldheritagesites.org/assets/files/Human_origins_review_Fossil_photo_guide.pdf

Australian Museum. (2015, September 25). Australopithecus Africanus. Retrieved from https://australianmuseum.net.au/australopithecus-africanus

Blaxland, B. (2016, February 5). Australian Museum. Retrieved March 31, 2017, from https://australianmuseum.net.au/hominid-and-hominin-whats-the-difference

Beyin, A. HUMAN ORIGINS, DISPERSAL AND ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTS: AN AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE.

Castro, J. (2015, June 22). Homo Erectus: Facts About the 'Upright Man' Retrieved March 31, 2017, from http://www.livescience.com/41048-facts-about-homo-erectus.html

Dorey, F., & Blaxland, B. (2010, December 24). Australian Museum. Retrieved March 31, 2017, from https://australianmuseum.net.au/the-human-family-tree

Dorey, F. (2015, September 25). Australian Museum. Retrieved March 31, 2017, from https://australianmuseum.net.au/australopithecus-africanus 

Edwards, S. (2012). Analysis of Two Competing Theories on the Origin of Homo sapiens sapiens: Multiregional Theory vs. the Out of Africa 2 Model. Analysis of Two Competing Theories on the Origin of Homo sapiens sapiens: Multiregional Theory vs. the Out of Africa 2 Model. Retrieved March 31, 2017, from http://anthrojournal.com/issue/october-2011/article/analysis-of-two-competing-theories-on-the-origin-of-homo-sapiens-sapiens-multiregional-theory-vs-the-out-of-africa-2-model

Foundation, B. (n.d.). Bradshaw Foundation Origins - Homo habilis. Retrieved March 30, 2017, from http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/origins/homo_habilis.php

Genus. (2017, March 31). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 16:20, April 3, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Genus&oldid=773086950

Hays, J. (2016, September). HOMO ERECTUS, OUT OF AFRICA THEORY. Retrieved March 30, 2017, from http://factsanddetails.com/world/cat56/sub360/item1481.html

Homo. (2017, March 30). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 16:21, April 3, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Homo&oldid=772934298

Kemmer, S. (2012, January 9). Homo habilis and Homo erectus. Retrieved March 30, 2017, from http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~kemmer/Evol/habiliserectus.html

Slav, I. (2015, July 22). Homo Habilis Were First Out of Africa. Retrieved March 30, 2017, from http://www.newhistorian.com/homo-habilis-were-first-out-of-africa/4386/

Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. (2010, March 01). Climate Effects on Human Evolution | The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program. Retrieved March 31, 2017, from http://humanorigins.si.edu/research/climate-and-human-evolution/climate-effects-human-evolution

Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. (2010, March 01). Homo habilis | The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program. Retrieved March 31, 2017, from http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/homo-habilis

Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. (2016, Feb 09). Sahelanthropus tchadensis | The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program. Retrieved March 31, 2017, from http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/sahelanthropus-tchadensis

Timeline of human evolution. (2017, March 18). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 16:22, April 3, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Timeline_of_human_evolution&oldid=770917732

Van Arsdale, A. P. (2013). Homo erectus - A Bigger, Smarter, Faster Hominin Lineage. Retrieved March 31, 2017, from http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/homo-erectus-a-bigger-smarter-97879043

Images:

1. Human Origins (March 30 2016)

2. Matteo De Stefano/MUSE, Homo sapiens - Metal Age - reconstruction – MUSE. CC BY-SA 3.0

3. Homo Neanderthalensis (2009, December 22)

4. Tim Evanson, Homo erectus adult female - head model - Smithsonian Museum of Natural History - 2012-05-17.jpg (8 July 2012)

5. Homo Habilis (22 December 2009)

6. Tim Evanson, Australopithecus afarensis adult male - head model - Smithsonian Museum of Natural History - 2012-05-17, (17 May 2012) 

7. Tim Evanson, Sahelanthropus tchadensis adult male - head model - Smithsonian Museum of Natural History - 2012-05-17, (17 May 2012)

8. Karen Neoh, Sahelanthropus Tchadensis (27 Nov 2013). CC BY 2.0.

9. TM 266-01-060-1. (2016, February 9)

10. Ryan Somma, Sahelanthropus tchadensis (1 Jan 1980). CC BY-SA 2.0.

11. Jose Braga, Original skull of a male Australopithecus africanus (26 October 2010). CC BY-SA 4.0

12. Concavenator, Australopithecus afarensis (16 January 2017). CC BY-SA 4.0

13. James St. John, Australopithecus afarensis (Lucy skeleton) (22 July 2006). CC BY 2.0

14. Care Bento, Australopithecus africanus lower jaw angled view (3 December 2009). © Australian Museum

15. Matheusvieeira, Australopithecus family (1 May 2017). Public Domain

16. Axi Magnum, Australopithecus Africanus (1 June 2014). CC BY-SA 3.0.

17. Didier Descouens, Pierre taillée Melka Kunture Éthiopie fond (25 August 2010). CC BY-SA 4.0

18. Lillyundfreya, Homo habilis-2 (2007). CC BY-SA 1.0

19. Ryan Somma, Homo habilis (1 January 1980). CC BY-SA 2.0

20. Cicero Moraes, Homo habilis - forensic facial reconstruction (10 March 2013). CC BY-SA 3.0

21. Matt Celeskey, Homo erectus tools (15 November 2008). CC BY-SA 2.0

22. Rept0n1x, Homo habilis skull cast, World Museum Liverpool (6 October     2013). CC BY-SA 3.0

23. Gerbil, Homme de Tautavel 01-08 (September 2008). CC BY-SA 3.0

24. C. Alon, Erectus (17 July 2010). CC BY-Sa 3.0

25. Thomas Roche, Homo erectus (20 November 2007). CC-BY-SA-2.0

26. 120, Ferrassie skull (April 2007). CC BY-SA 3.0

27. Martyman, Neanderthal-2D-MJC (18 February 2006). CC BY-SA 3.0

28. Luna04~commonswiki, Homo ergaster (27 October 2005). CC BY-SA 3.0

29. Stefano,D.M, Homo sapiens - Metal Age - reconstruction (29 April 2016). CC BY-SA3.0

30. Iswell. San people in Botswana start a fire by hand. (1 January 2005). CC BY-SA2.5

31. Cleverclapybara. The human population has been growing rapidly since the mid-1800s. (23 August 2015) CC BY-SA3.0

Unnumbered:

NASA, 187 1003703 africa dxm (6 July 2015). Public Domain

Daderot, Stone tools, Neanderthal, Bad Urach, Wittlingen, c. 50,000 to 70,000 years old - Landesmuseum Württemberg - Stuttgart, Germany - DSC02685 (6 December 2015). Public Domain