There were many different theories about who Jesus really is, that existed in the period directly after his death, around the 1st century CE to the 5th century CE. Today, these different theories are known as heresies. It’s worth noting that one of those theories was accepted as the orthodox position in the early church. These heresies are crucial to the history of Christianity because it has allowed for the debate over Jesus' nature and has therefore helped to shape Christianity into what we know today. What happened before the divinity of Jesus was established? Who was he really?
This video will display four of the many heresies that existed in the past: docetism, ebionism, arianism and apollinarianism, accompanied by some background history. In the video, we used picture cutouts accompanied by voiceover narrations to flesh out the respective heresies. Hope you enjoy our video!
Jesus: Who Do You Say that I Am?
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Our video script can be accessed via this link :)
Danielzik, Torben. Christological Heresies (n.d.). Zeltmacher.
Nassif, Bradley. Heresy in the early church: Christian history timeline. (1996). Christian History, 51.
Perry, Matt. Athanasius and His Influence at the Council of Nicaea. (2003). Quodlibet Journal, 5(2-3).
Molnar, Paul D. Some Dogmatic Implications of Barth’s Understanding of Ebionite and Docetic Christology. (2000). International Journal of Systematic Theology, 2(2), 151-174.
Schneemelcher, Wilhelm & Maurer, Christian. The Gospel of Peter. (1994). New Testament Apocrypha: Gospels and related writings. pp. 216–227. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
Hunter, William B. Milton on the Incarnation: Some More Heresies. (1960). Journal of the History of Ideas, 21(3), 349-369.
Nelson, Thomas. Early Christological Heresies. (1982). Understanding Ministries.
Barker, Jason. Heresies: Then and Now. (n.d). Watchman Fellowship.
Photo Credits List
- Jesus' crucifixion: Bellini, Jacopo. Jacopo bellini, crocefissione (15th century). Public Domain.
- Jesus as a person: Hoffmann, Heinrich. Christ, by Heinrich Hofmann (1 June 1889). Public Domain.
- Peter: Rubens, Peter Paul. Pope-peter pprubens (between 1610 and 1612). Public Domain.
- Jesus (humanity): Carracci, Annibale. Annibale Carracci - Christ Wearing the Crown of Thorns, Supported by Angels - WGA04427 (between 1585 and 1587). Public Domain.
- Jesus (divine): Divina Misericordia. Jesús en Vos confío (18 April 2011). Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported.
- Girl 1 (opening scene): Kauffmann, Angelica. Angelica Kauffmann by Angelica Kauffmann (29 March 2009). Public Domain.
- Girl 2 (docetism): Artist Unknown. Herkulaneischer Meister 002 (17 April 2014). Public Domain.
- Girl 3 (ebionism): David, Jacques-Louis. David Vestale (14 June 2012). Public Domain.
- Girl 3's friend (ebionism): Etty, William. Mary, Lady Templeton (1 July 2015). Public Domain.
- Arius (arianism): Artist Unknown. Arius portré (Date Unknown). Public Domain.
- Girl 4 (arianism & apollinarianism): Chardin, Jean-Baptiste Siméon. Knucklebones (15 November 2015). Public Domain.
- Girl 5 (arianism & apollinarianism): Dolci, Carlo. Dolci Claudia Felicita (27 August 2008). Public Domain.
- Narrator: Artist Unknown. Robot (n.d). CC0 Public Domain.
- Shell: Artist Unknown. Twisting Conch shell Vector Clipart (n.d.). Public Domain.