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Interview with a Queen

For our project, we have decided to do an interview with the ancient Egyptian Queen Ahmose Nefertari. We crown her woman of the year 1543 BCE and she steps into the studio to provide her thoughts on issues that affect women in her society, focusing heavily on religious issues. She is able to provide an inside scoop on the entire situation as she is both part of the royal family and holds an esteemed position in Amun's Temple. Despite the gender gap during her time, Queen Nefertari managed to come to power and accomplished many feats during her reign. Now Queens hold a position of incredible power and affluence, potentially setting the stage for all women to increase their status as well. While we might not face the exact same issues, there are parallels we can draw between ancient Egypt and modern society. Enjoy! 

For more information, please check out the links below!

Content Sources:

Ahmose-Nefertari (c. 1570–1535 BCE). (2007). In Anne Commire & Deborah Klezmer (Eds.), Dictionary of Women Worldwide: 25,000 Women Through the Ages (Vol. 1, p. 24). Detroit: Yorkin Publications.

Breasted, James Henry., & Library of Robert Duncan (State University of New York at Buffalo). (1959). Development of religion and thought in ancient Egypt. New York: Harper.

Cooney, Kara. (2014). The Woman Who Would Be King (First ed.). New York: Crown Publishers

Graves-Brown, Carolyn. (2010). Dancing for Hathor. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. 

Isis: Mythic goddess of egypt. (1991, Jun 30). Women in Action, , 27. 

J. Paul Getty Museum., & Getty Conservation Institute. (1992). In the tomb of Nefertari: Conservation of the wall paintings. Malibu, Calif.: J. Paul Getty Museum.

Khalil, Radwa., Moustafa, A. Ahmed., Moftah, Marie. Z., & Karim, A. Ahmed. (2017). How Knowledge of Ancient Egyptian Women Can Influence Today's Gender Role: Does History Matter in Gender Psychology? Frontiers in Psychology

Roberts, Alison. (. M. (1997). Hathor rising: The power of the goddess in ancient Egypt. Rochester, Vt.: Inner Traditions International.

Teeter, Emily. (2011). Religion and ritual in ancient Egypt. Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press.

Wilkinson, H.Richard. (2003). The complete gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt. New York: Thames & Hudson.


Media Sources:

Ausschnittbearbeitung NebMaatRe, Ahmes Nefertari Grab 10, 2009, public domain

K. Faulmann, Amenhotep I, 1881, public domain

Karl Richard Lepsius, Lepsi ah nef, 1849-1859, 

Keith Schengili-Roberts, OsirisStela-AmenhotepIAndAhmoseNofretari BrooklynMuseum, 2007, CC-BY-SA-2.5

Marcus Cyron, EgyptMuseumBerlin2007066 a2, 2011, CC BY-SA 1.0

Robert James Hay, Fragment of painting from the tomb of Kynebu Thebes, Egypt, 20th Dynasty, 1868, via The British Museum

Unknown author, Head of Nefertari-aahmes, Queen of King Aahmes, Conqueror of the Hiesos, 1884, CC BY-SA 2.5

Unknown Artist, Egypte louvre 086 stele, 2004, CC BY-SA 3.0




Good things come to an end

Good things come to an end

War has a close connection with politics and religion. Politicians were also military leaders in ancient civilizations.  Many kings led battles and conquered kingdom in an attempt to expand the boundaries. In doing so, it is not surprising that the fate of the nation, its rule and its people are affected too. This is especially important for ancient Egypt which won and lost many wars.

If I were a rich man...

Hey guys! As promised, our video is done! We hope you enjoy it as much as we did making it. Special credits to Elijah's African friend, Alvin Philemon, who helped us with this! 

Mansa Musa was one of the richest kings that lived in 14th century CE. His pilgrimage to Mecca made Mali so famous that even Europeans knew of Mali’s existence at that time. Mansa Musa also spread Islam as a religion to the countries that he had visited.



Baxter, J. (2000, December 13). AFRICA | Africa's 'greatest explorer' Retrieved April 03, 2017, from

Donn, L. (n.d.). Mansa MusaThe Muslim Kingof Mali. Retrieved April 03, 2017, from

JNSN. (2017). Peace. New Zealand: Nik Jensen. (2017). Retrieved April 23, 2017, from

JNSN. (2017). Strums. New Zealand: Nik Jensen. (2017). Retrieved April 23, 2017, from

Tesfu, J. (n.d.). Musa, Mansa (1280-1337) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed. Retrieved April 03, 2017, from

T. (2015, May 18). Retrieved April 03, 2017, from

World-History. (n.d.). Retrieved April 03, 2017, from

If The Apostles Had Smartphones

If The Apostles Had Smartphones

Good Friday and Easter Sunday were the 2 prominent events that began the spread of Christianity to what it is today. Since then, 12 Apostles/Disciples were commissioned by Jesus to spread the word of gospel across nations. Spreading the word of gospel has allowed Christianity to develop into something more understood. Join us, and them, on THE adventure beginning with just one powerful command from Jesus Christ! #ITAHSP

Monidaya in Andalusia!


The history of Islamic Spain is rather underrated that we decided to take on this topic to not only enlighten ourselves, but to also teach our readers through our unique way of sharing what we’ve we learned. As we researched Al-Andalus (aka Islamic Spain), we were fascinated by the overwhelming vibrancy of its architectural design, and its religious and political significance during the time.  The purpose of our project is to find out how art reflected the time of Islamic Spain, specifically how they translated Islam into something tangible, particularly architecture. 

Consequently, we were particularly interested in the elements that make a mosque, palace, and a church and how architecture could relate to and represent religious beliefs. It intrigued us that a mosque could also be a cathedral, such as the one in Cordoba. It is important to note that after the fall of Islamic Spain, the Christians continued to preserve Islamic architecture, and even adopted Moorish and Mudejar styles. We will take our audience on a visual trip through different time periods of Islamic kingdoms of Al-Andalus. We will analyze the Aljaferia Palace in Zaragoza, one of the Taifa kingdoms; the Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoba, during the Umayyad caliphate; the Alcazar of Seville; and lastly, the Alhambra palace in Granada, from the Nasrid Kingdom. Despite the differences in beliefs, the people of Spain believed in the adaptation of artistic styles from diverse groups of people, which eventually lead to the Spain that everyone visits for the purpose of its rich history. Appreciation for these styles, groups of people, and its relevance to the present day is a key factor in our project. 

We chose Instagram because it is a multi-purpose social media platform. Having a collective interest in photography, we wanted it to be a relatable experience, whereby our explorer, Monidaya, is documenting the places in what was once in Islamic Spain. We were inspired by travel bloggers who documented every part of their trip to provide background knowledge, making us yearn to wander to such exotic places and delve further into the history of the location. Lastly, Islamic Spain is rich in arts and culture that Instagram is the easiest platform to share the aesthetically pleasing pictures as well as to relay historical context without losing our focus. The individual posts allow us to group our topics specifically for further appreciation and understanding of our context.

The architecture in Al-Andalus is vital in today’s context because it shows how a historic time can continue to exist without the maintenance of the society that once lived there. Overall, the architectures carried political and religious significance, reflecting diverse craftsmanship and cultural influences during the time. It continues to be influential and aesthetically acclaimed around the world, and continues to leave a legacy of Islam and its influence. We concluded that art is a universal language in expressing religious beliefs that a person from a different culture or time period, could understand and appreciate.

Here is the link to our architecture of Islamic Spain Instagram page! Enjoy! :)

Post 1: Intro Monidaya the explorer

Post 2: History of Al-Andalus

Post 3: History of Aljaferia Palace

Post 4: Majlis in the Aljaferia Palace

Post 5: Mudejar Style with the Aljaferia Palace as reference

Post 6: History of Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoba

Post 7: The Mihrab of Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoba

Post 8: The Prayer Hall of Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoba 

Post 9: The transition from mosque to cathedral of Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoba

Post 10: Alcazar of Seville (Mudejar Style)

Post 11: Moorish style with Alcazar of Seville as reference

Post 12: Alhambra introduction

Post 13: Hall of Ambassadors in Alhambra

Post 14: Ceiling of Hall of Ambassadors in Alhambra

Post 15: Adieu, Al-Andalus/Spain


Alhambra Valparaiso Ocio y Cultura S.L. - (n.d.). History of the Mosque.

Centre, UNESCO. "Mudejar Architecture Of Aragon". N.p., 2017. Web. 23 Apr. 2017.

Department of Islamic Art. “The Art of the Umayyad Period in Spain (711–1031).” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000

GHAZANFAR,S.M., March 2004, Spain’s Islamic Legacy : A Muslim Travelogue

Gonzales, Valerie. “Beauty and Islam” (2001). Proquest Ebook Central.

Hall of Ambassadors.  From Alhambra De Granada. Accessed 1 April 2017

Harvey L.P.,“Islamic Spain. 1250 to 1500.” , 1990, Google Books. 

Hogendijk, Jan P. “Al-Mu'taman ibn Hūd, 11th century king of Saragossa and brilliant mathematician” (February 1995) Historia Matematica.

Le Hoang Long, Vincent. "Royal Alcázar Of Seville, Spain – A World Heritage Site". Culture Magazine 2016. Web. 23 Apr. 2017.

Robinson, Cynthia Pinet,, Simon. Courting the Alhambra (2008). Proquest Ebook Central.

Robinson, C. “THE ALJAFERÍA IN SARAGOSSA AND TAIFA SPACES” (2000) Cambridge University Press.

Robinson, C. (1997). Seeing Paradise: Metaphor and Vision in taifa Palace Architecture. Gesta,36(2), 145-155.

Ruggles, D. Fairchild. "The Alcazar Of Seville And Mudejar Architecture". The University of Chicago Press Journals 43.2 (2004): 87-98. Print.

The Art of the Nasrid Period (1232-1492).” From Metropolitan Museum of Art.  Accessed 1 April 2017.

Vallaure, Sandra. "The Royal Alcazar: Spain's Oldest Palace - Seville Traveller". Seville Traveller. N.p., 2017. Web. 23 Apr. 2017.

Watson, Fiona Flores. "Seville's Most Beautiful Palace: The Alcazar Real of Seville". The Spain Scoop. 

W. Montegomery Watt & Pierre Cachia, “A History of Islamic Spain” , 1965, Google books. 


Media Credits:

Post 1:

Monika Burton Pangilinan

Post 2: Alexandre Vigo, "Al_Andalus & Christian Kingdoms" , 23rd December 2013, Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication.

Post 3: Juanedc, Palacio de la Aljaferia, 10 January 2009, Creative Commons.

Post 4: Escarlati, Patio de Santa Isabel, 15 July 2006, Public Domain.

Post 5: 

Escarlati, Estancias testero norte aljaferia, 14 July 2006, Public Domain.

Escarlati, Techumbre palacio reyes catolicos aljaferia, 15 July 2006, Public Domain.

Post 6: CEphoto, Uwe Aranas/ Córdoba, Spain: Mosque of Córdoba/ 19 February 2010/ Photo by CEphoto, Uwe Aranas

Post 7: Michael Cohen, Mihrab of Mosque of Córdoba Spain, 14 July 2008, Creative Commons.

Post 8: Jim Gordon, Mezquita de Córdoba, España, 30 October 2007, Creative Commons.

Post 9:

Jan Seifart, Coro de la Mezquita de Córdoba, 26 November 2012, CC BY 2.0.

Michal Osmenda, Cathedral-Mosque of Córdoba, 8 April 2012, CC BY 2.0.

Post 10:
Michal Osmenda, Alcazar of Seville, 2012, Wikimedia Commons

Unknown, Alcazar Palace in Seville, Euro Scenes, Labeled for Reuse

Unknown, Seville Garden Spain Walkway, Maxpixel, Public Domain

Unknown, Alcazar Water Supply, Maxpixel, Public Domain

Post 11:
Unknown, Royal Alcazar of Seville, Culturemagazin, Public Domain

Unknown, Moorish ceramic tiles in Royal Alcázar of Seville, Culturemagazin, Public Domain

Mstyslav Chernov, Moorish Palace Arches in the Alcazar in Seville, 2008, Wikimedia Commons

Michal Osmenda, Alcazar of Seville, 2012, Wikimedia Commons

Post 12:

Bernjan, View of the Alhambra,1 August 2006, CC BY-SA 2.0

Tuxyso, Court of the Lions of Alhambra,10 March 2014, CC BY-SA 3.0

Post 13:

Eva Maryskova, The Alhambra’s Hall of Ambassadors,9 February 2013, Public Domain

Jan Zeschy, Alhambra Granada,1 September 2006,. CC BY-NC 2.0

Micheal Clarke, Serallo 15 ,2 March 2010, CC BY-SA 2.0

Post 14:

José Luiz, Ceiling of Hall of Ambassadors, 3 February 2013, CC BY-SA 3.0

Post 15: 
Sarah Loetscher, Via Pixabay, Public Domain


Vietnam: Role of Women

 CiaoHo,  Vietnamese's smile. Soctrang, Vietnam  (27 Jan 2014). CC BY 2.0

CiaoHo, Vietnamese's smile. Soctrang, Vietnam (27 Jan 2014). CC BY 2.0

Vietnamese women? Did they just wear their iconic conical hats, row their boats, and sell their goods like how they do today? Contrary to popular belief that women played a one-dimensional role in ancient Vietnam, Vietnamese women played roles in politics, the economy, and marriage which greatly impacted the Vietnamese culture. This can be seen if we look at the period of ruling by the Trung Sisters and the flourishing economy contributed by women in agriculture from 100 BCE to 43 CE. Click here to find out more!



Dutton, George. Beyond myth and caricature situating women in the history of early modern Vietnam (2013) Journal of Vietnamese studies, 8(2), 1-36.

Goodkind, Daniel. "Rising gender inequality in Vietnam since reunification." Pacific Affairs (1995): 342-359.

Stow, L, K. The Vietnamese women who fought for their country. (2016)

Lien, V. H. S. P. Descending Dragon, Rising Tiger. (2014) London: Reaktion Books, Limited. 

Lockard, C. Societies, Networks, and Transitions: Volume I: A Global History, Volume 2. (2007)

Manning, Keri L. Harder than war? Making peace in southeast asia (2004) Transformations, 98

Werner, Jayne Susan, and Khuat Thu Hong. "Too Late to Marry: Failure, Fate or Fortune? Female Singlehood in Rural North Viet Nam." In Gender, Household, State: đỏ̂i Mới in Việt Nam, 89-110. Ithaca, N.Y.: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University, 2002.

Williams, L. Attitudes toward marriage in northern Vietnam: What qualitative data reveal about variations across gender, generation, and geography. (2009) Journal of Population Research, 26(4), 285-304. 


Media credits

Adrienne Mountain, Rice Fields (21 Oct 2011). CC BY-NC 2.0

Andrea Williams, making a living (24 Sep 2007). CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

CiaoHo, Vietnamese's smile. Soctrang, Vietnam (27 Jan 2014). CC BY 2.0

Dekcuf, Women go to war (13 August 2009). CC BY 2.0

John, Hanoi woman (30 July 2003). CC BY 2.0

Manhhai, Farmers gather rice all women no men some pregnant how about- Photo by Joel39 (22 Nov 2016). CC BY 2.0

National Archives and Records Administration, Girl volunteers of the People's Self-Defense Force of Kien Dien, a hamlet of Ben Cat district 50 kilometers north of Saigon, patrol the hamlet's perimeter to discourage Viet Cong infiltration (3 Aug 2011). Public Domain

Piwaie, Thua Thien Hue Vietnam (12 June 2006). CC BY-SA 1.0

Shankar s., Apart from access, the ship serves everything anyway (Nov 2016). CC BY 2.0

TDA at Vietnamese Wikipedia, The statue of Hai Ba Trung in the Suoi Tien Amusement Park, which is located at the 9th District, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (19 May 2010). Public Domain

Trần Nguyễn Trung Hiếu, Married Vietnamese couple in wedding ao dai, style of Nguyen dynasty (1 June 2016) Public Domain.

World Bank Photo Collection, Rice fields in Mai Chau, Vietnam (6 Dec 2007). CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

Shiva, Love him or fear him?

  සිංහල:  Salu1001, ශිව දෙවියන් , (15 Nov2014). Creative Commons

සිංහල: Salu1001,ශිව දෙවියන්, (15 Nov2014). Creative Commons


Shaivism is a Hindu sect that worships Shiva as the Supreme One. The worshippers of Shiva engage in a plethora of rituals in an attempt to please the Lord. In this blog, we strive to show Shiva in three distinct forms that possess it own attributes ranging from fear-inducing to awe-inspiring ones. These forms not only show the pervasiveness of Shiva but also highlight the glory and function each form exhibits.

This blog comes together with authentic Indian music so please turn up the volume. We have four posts in the blog which gives a brief introduction on Shaivism and Shiva's potrayal as Rudra, Nataraja and Shivalinga. Press 'view blog' tab on the top left corner to view our blog. On the left hand side of the bar, we have a poll whereby you'll can rate on how you'll find the post. 

Do you want to read a blog on how Shiva evolved as a god in India? Do you'll want to see how devotees please the Great God? Or do you'll simply want to know more Shiva?  If then go ahead and...





Coomaraswamy, Ananda. “Saiva Sculptures: Recent Acquisitions” Museum of Fine Arts, Boston(1922).

Iyer, Alessandra. “Śiva's Dance: Iconography and Dance Practice in South and Southeast Asia”  Research Center for Music Iconography, The Graduate Center, City University of New York(2000).

Knoke, Christine Louise. “ The splendor of Shiva: A selection of Chola bronzes from the Norton Simon Museum” University of Southern California, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing (1997).

Kaimal, Padma. “ Shiva Nataraja: Shifting Meanings of an Icon” The Art Bulletin(1999).

Sitanarasimhan. “Naṭarāja in Tamil Tradition” Istituto Italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente (IsIAO)(2004).

Stein, Burton. “Circulation and the Historical Geography of Tamil Country” Association for the Asian studies(1977).

Srinivasan, Sharada. “Cosmic Dance” India International Centre(2007).

Surekha Dhaleta. Exploring Kashmiri Shaivism. “Times of India.” (2011)

Lahiri, N., & Bacus, E. Exploring the Archaeology of Hinduism.World Archaeology (2004)  

Srinivasan, D. (1983). Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vedic Rudra-Śiva. (1983)

Mithras is Our True Crown

Mithraism was a mystery religion that existed in the Roman Empire from the 1st to 4th century CE. This mystery religion revolved around the deity Mithras, and had seven degrees of initiation within its cults. As the notion of ‘mystery religion’ might suggest, the cult of Mithras is, well, mysterious, and very little is actually known about it. However, we offer a glimpse into this secretive cult as our story follows the journey of an unnamed Mithraic priest recalling his initiation into the cult of Mithras. We invite any readers to read through our tale, and render mystery a little less mysterious.

Gothic Architecture - More than what meets the eye

Do you know that Big Ben, the great clock tower in London, was actually built according to the Gothic architectural style? Well, if you didn’t know before, now you do!

 Max Pixel.  Building Architecture Westminster Abbey Britain . n.d. Creative Commons.

Max Pixel. Building Architecture Westminster Abbey Britain. n.d. Creative Commons.

Believed to have emerged from Northern France at around 1140 CE during the High Medieval period, Gothic architecture adopted and modified parts of the Romanesque style of architecture (which directly preceded Gothic architecture), and eventually developed into a magnificent architectural style of its own right. It spread quickly across Europe, and even to this day, its influence can be felt among many European countries, such as France, Italy, and the United Kingdom.

The Gothic style is still phenomenally popular, and it is often the preferred design for new churches and cathedrals. What makes it especially unique are its characteristic features, namely the vaulted ceilings, pointed arches, buttresses (especially arched flying buttresses) and window tracery. Besides being aesthetically-pleasing, the structural features and style of Gothic architecture also play an essential role in telling us about the historical context of Medieval Europe, particularly about its religious history.

Our Tumblr page will elaborate upon the background, history, and characteristic features of Gothic architecture. Examples of classic Gothic architectural structures will also be provided. Check out our Tumblr using this link:

Note: Reference list is provided on the tumblr webpage!